Maslow has identified that human beings’ behavior is governed by hierarchies of needs. Human beings seek to accomplish higher level needs once they have met lower level such as hunger. Similarly, Freud said that human beings wish to fulfill their Id demands without being punished by superego. According to him, the Ego’s role is to put on the cover on our Id needs in such a way that superego does not despise and create emotional disturbance. Machiavelli views provided a means to political manipulators as to how control super-ego while fulling power needs of ID. He tells how to win over people confidence by manipulating human emotions of the masses.

Nawaz Sharif is not a leader but a manipulator

Pre and post partition history shows that Pakistan has never really got a transformational or transactional* leader but a bunch of manipulators who very well used views of Maslow, Freud and Machiavelli. They lived on slogans that were temporarily appealing to people’s emotions without any intention to implement them or to bring change in the value system of people. All India Muslim League leadership had no intention to have an Islamic state but they brought in religion into a political movement to meet their own vested political interests. During the movement, they worked to instill in the Indian Muslims that their faith would be suspected if they did not favor Muslim League. Consequently, propagated the slogan ‘if you are a Muslim then join and vote for Muslim League’. The Machiavelli slogan was a source to satisfy lower level religious needs of Muslims as well as they thought that they would be better off economically after having their own piece of land.  The sloganized movement worked well for the then leadership as it galvanized Muslims Superego; Muslims started to feel that if they did not accept the demands of All Indian Muslim League it would be a cheating towards Islam. The moment All India Muslim League leadership met its goal, they ignored the slogan and put forward a new agenda to discuss what type of country we should have.  Political manipulation never stopped in Pakistan since then. Zia-UL-Haq also adopted the similar tactics and played with the emotions of Pakistani Muslims in the name of religion. In his referendum, he said that those Pakistanis who love religion would vote for him. In Freudian terms what he did, he told to the superego of Muslims to despise them if they oppose his rule. He never wanted to introduce an Islamic egalitarian system but to strengthen personal authority. A secular Zulfiqar Ali Bhutoo got popularity by developing hope that he would meet people’s physical lower level needs so  advanced the slogan of ‘bread, shelter and clothing’. However, after meeting the personal goal, he got busier in strengthening his own power than serving the interests of common people. In the recent history Benazir Bhutto, Zardari, Nawaz Sharif, Shabaz Sharif and others did the same. They highlighted the common-man problems and promised to resolve them in the short run.  For example, in elections 2013, the Sharif brothers cried for electricity load shedding, participated in sit-ins and criticized the previous government but the moment they won the elections, they realized that it would not be possible to overcome on the electricity issue in the short term.

Political manipulater think citizens are beggars

All Pakistani political and religious leaders religiously followed the Machiavellian’s philosophy, which states that leaders must appeal to lower level needs to get accepted but never fulfill them. The disciples of Machiavelli are well aware of the fact that once lower level needs are met, people will demand for Maslow higher level needs of self-efficacy and self-actualization. Of course, from Machiavelli point of view, meeting lower level needs means death of leadership of a manipulator. The history of Pakistan and other countries show that manipulators take actions in the name of a state or/and people to serve their personal interests. They make non-issues as national issues to divert the attention from the real issues.

In simple, Pakistani politicians are more interested in manipulating than providing transactional or transformational leadership. The survival of them is hidden in providing manipulative leadership. Now, it depends upon the common people whether or not they continued to be manipulated or stand for to develop themselves. It is clear that begging type attitude never lets one grows. The proper attitude is that if a manipulator does not deliver what he/she has promised, then it is your right to snatch it: this is the lesson that we learn from international political history.

* Transactional leaders refers to a leader who manages things honestly and sincerely without bringing paradigm change; whereas transactional leaders are those who honestly strive for change in a value system that carries a paradigm change and brings fruitful results to all.

Nadeem Yousaf
27 June 2013

Manipulators or Leaders

Maslow has identified that human beings’ behavior is governed by hierarchies of needs. Human beings seek to accomplish higher level needs once they have met lower level such as hunger. Similarly, Freud said that human beings wish to fulfill their Id demands without being punished by superego. According to him, the Ego’s role is to put on the cover on our Id needs in such a way that superego does not despise and create emotional disturbance. Machiavelli views provided a means to political manipulators as to how control super-ego while fulling power needs of ID. He tells how to win over people confidence by manipulating human emotions of the masses.