According to Argyris, that all individuals have espoused theory and theories-in-use. Espoused theory is referred to the attitude or approach towards certain phenomena, whereas theories-in-use is the individuals’ actual behaviors and actions. Espousing something is meaningless if not followed by the actions. Pakistani historians generally refer to Jinnah’s espoused theories and hardly analyze his theories-in-use. Pakistan’s political culture continued as pre-partition because Jinnah never tried to change it and there were inconsistencies between his espoused theory and theories-in-use. The following is an example of such discrepancy.

Car of JinnahIt is generally said that Jinnah was very conscious in spending money from the public exchequer, and he even counted pennies. Indeed, after independence, he stated, “Now what shall we do? Now if we want to make this great State of Pakistan happy and prosperous we should wholly and solely concentrate on the well-being of the people, and especially of the masses and the poor.” This was only possible when all people had consciously spent public money because Pakistan faced huge financial problems. Pakistan was surrounded  by financial problems, hence,  Jinnah wanted financial support from the international financial institutions. According to Hyderabad financier and later prime minister, Mir Laik Ali, reported that Jinnah was in an urgent need of finances thus Jinnah told him that he would accept any reasonable terms and offers to get a loan from international financial institutions. Under this dire situation, Pakistan should have saved each and every penny instead of spending on luxury, but this was not the case as shown in the following examples:

the plane of jinnahJinnah sent Ispahani to USA as a Pakistan representative who purchased a building in Washington for $150,000, which served as Pakistan’s Chancery. The expense was approved by Jinnah. One hundred fifty thousand dollars was a huge amount at that time, therefore, it is legitimate to ask, was the financial condition of the country in a position to buy a luxurious Chancery in USA?

Ispahani further mentioned that he met the top executives of General Motors Company who had taken prompt note of Jinnah’s requirement of Cadillac Super-Limousine and the General Motors promised to deliver the car as soon as possible. The cost of the car was $6000. Then they contacted the airplane manufacturer to buy the airplane for him. Jinnah indeed objected to buy a B-23 Beechcaft airplane for him, but approved Vickers Armstrong. Were the car and airplane so necessary when so many people were facing economic problems? Does it suit to a leader of a poor country to act as a British Viceroy?

The pre-partition legacy of spending public money to enhance personal convenience did not stop after independence. Nations do not prosper and poverty cannot be eradicated when the top leadership is unconcerned about the people’s economic conditions. Lip servicing and mere visits to poverty driven areas are not sufficient. This is so unfortunate in the South Asia that most of the historians portrait political leaders as saints by studying their political statements. This trend  has practically distorted the history of Pakistan.

Nadeem Yousaf


Wolpert, S 1984: Jinnah of Pakistan; Oxford University Press, New York

Influence of mission and vision on the state development: a case of Pakistan

Comparison of Espoused and Theories-in-Use of Jinnah